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Prior to the s, in Europe, the nation-state as we know it did not exist. Back then, most people did not consider themselves part of a nation; they rarely left their village and knew little of the larger world.
If anything, people were more likely to identify themselves with their region or local lord. At the same time, the rulers of states frequently had little control over their countries.
Instead, local feudal lords had a great deal of power, and kings often had to depend on the goodwill of their subordinates to rule. Laws and practices varied a great deal from one part of the country to another.
The timeline on page 65 explains some key events that led to the rise of the nation-state. In the early modern era, a number of monarchs began to consolidate power by weakening the feudal nobles and allying themselves with the emerging commercial classes.
This difficult process sometimes required violence. The consolidation of power also took a long time. Kings and queens worked to bring all the people of their territories under unified rule.
Not surprisingly, then, the birth of the nation-state also saw the first rumblings of nationalism, as monarchs encouraged their subjects to feel loyalty toward the newly established nations.
The modern, integrated nation-state became clearly established in most of Europe during the nineteenth century. Russia is a great example of consolidation of power by monarchs.
Throughout most of the medieval era, what became Russia was a minor principality centered on the city of Moscow. Over the course of a few hundred years, the rulers of Moscow took over more land, eventually expanding to cover much of what is now Russia.
This expansion came through a mix of diplomacy and war. When Ivan IV—also known as Ivan the Terrible—came of age and assumed the throne inhe was crowned the first czar.
He proceeded to devastate the nobility by means of a secret police and gained the loyalty of commercial classes by giving them positions in a new state bureaucracy.
These actions led to the deaths of thousands. The Catholic Church and the Rise of the Nation-State Newly emerging nation-states in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had a complex relationship with the predominant transnational power of the time, the Catholic Church.
At times, partial nation-states were useful tools for the Catholic Church. On several occasions, for example, France and Spain intervened in Italy at the invitation of the Pope.
But some monarchs wanted control over their national churches in order to get absolute power. This break with the Catholic Church gave the English something to rally around, thus encouraging them to develop loyalty toward the English nation-state.
The ¡dea of Nationalism 31 The Idea of Nationalism Aira Kemiläinen I. The Nationalist Idea and the National Principle Word, the Concept and Classification (Studia Historica Jyväskyläensia, vol. 3, Jyväskylä, ), p. Chapter II During the great revolution in France the "nation" also became the repository of. The problem with the internationalism of the Left is a boot grinding a human face forever. Nationalism is like the compartments of a ship. If there is an influx of toxic ideology it can be quarantined by borders. The concepts of a nation in which individuals are left open the idea identifying with a territory calling it their identity gave way for the concept of nationalism. Nationalism in its context makes people conscious of the fact that they belong to a nation.
At the same time, some devout Catholics in England refused to convert; their displeasure ultimately led to repression and civil war. Despite a brutal war, the Catholics were unable to overturn Protestantism.
The treaty that ended the war, called the Peace of Westphalia, decreed that the sovereign ruler of a state had power over all elements of both the nation and the state, including religion.
Thus, the modern idea of a sovereign state was born. Centralization Centralization, or the process by which law- and policymaking become centrally located, helped spur the development of nation-states.The problem with the internationalism of the Left is a boot grinding a human face forever.
Nationalism is like the compartments of a ship. If there is an influx of toxic ideology it can be quarantined by borders. The term “nationalism” is generally used to describe two phenomena: (1) the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity, and (2) the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to .
The ¡dea of Nationalism 31 The Idea of Nationalism Aira Kemiläinen I. The Nationalist Idea and the National Principle Word, the Concept and Classification (Studia Historica Jyväskyläensia, vol. 3, Jyväskylä, ), p. Chapter II During the great revolution in France the "nation" also became the repository of.
NOTE: Eric Hobsbawm is one of the best known historians of the Twentieth Century. In addition to many books on a variety of topics, Hobsbawm has written two important texts dealing with the subject of nationalism. These include: Nations and Nationalism Since and The Invention of vetconnexx.com excerpt included here is drawn from Nations and Nationalism since The outbreak of the French Revolution in resulted from a longer-term transformation of political culture.
Central to this was the emergence of a self-conscious public opinion that viewed itself as national and sovereign.
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