German re-alignment to Austria-Hungary and Russian re-alignment to France, —[ edit ] In German and Russian alignment was secured by means of a secret Reinsurance Treaty arranged by Otto von Bismarck. However, in the treaty was allowed to lapse in favor of the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary. This development was attributed to Count Leon von Caprivithe Prussian general who replaced Bismarck as chancellor. Petersburg to engage in a direct understanding with Vienna, without a written accord.
The events of July and early August are a classic case of "one thing led to another" - otherwise known as the treaty alliance system.
Sir Edward Greythe British Foreign Secretary, was moved to comment that he had "never before seen one State address to another independent State a document of so formidable a character.
However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary. Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into the dispute The cause of wwi any great extent other than through words of diplomatic protest, the Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances from her ally, Germany, that she would come to her aid should the unthinkable happen and Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary.
Russia, bound by treaty to Serbia, announced mobilisation of its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete.
Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August. France, bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on 3 August.
Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route. Britain, allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a "moral obligation" upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August.
Her reason for entering the conflict lay in another direction: Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary. Japan, honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan. Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both.
The following year, in Mayshe finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies. Click here for more extensive information detailing who entered the war - and when.
What was intended as a strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly escalated into something that was beyond the expectations of even the most warlike ministers in Berlin and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiralling events in late July and sought German reassurances.
His first step was to oust Austria as the prime influence among these German states. He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein much against the wishes of his own Kaiser. As importantly, Bismarck had successfully displaced Austria in the spheres of influence over the many small German states.
Having assembled a united assembly in the north Bismarck determined to achieve the same in the south - and so unite all of the German states under the Prussian banner. How to achieve this?
Bismarck resolved that war with the French, a common enemy, would attain his aims. First, he needed to engineer a credible reason for war.
Thus, inBismarck attempted to place a Hohenzollern prince on the throne in Spain. Napoleon III, fearful of the prospect of theoretical war on two fronts - for the Hohenzollern prince was a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm I - objected. Bismarck turned up the diplomatic heat by releasing, on 14 Julya doctored version of a telegram ostensibly from the Kaiser to Bismarck himself, called the Ems Telegram.
The effect of the telegram was to simultaneously insult both France and Prussia over their inability to resolve the dispute over the Spanish throne.
Napoleon III, facing civil revolt at home over quite unrelated matters, and receiving encouraging noises from his military commanders, responded by declaring war against Prussia five days later, on 19 July Once again, as was the case against Austria, the Prussian military machine demolished the French forces.
Napoleon III, who personally led his forces at the lost Battle of Sedan, surrendered and was deposed in the civil war that boiled over in France, resulting in the Third French Republic.
Meantime the Prussian forces laid siege to Paris between September and Januarystarving the city into surrender. The consequences of the war were numerous. He had secured what he wanted, and his chief desire now was to maintain its stability.
He therefore set about building European alliances aimed at protecting Germany from potentially threatening quarters. He was acutely aware that the French were itching to revenge their defeat at the earliest opportunity - and the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia would prove to be a lasting sore.
Indeed, the French plan for war inPlan XVIIwas largely based around the recapture of Alsace and Lorraine in the shortest possible time - with disastrous consequences.
Bismarck did not initially fear an alliance between France and Britain, for the latter was at that time in the midst of a self-declared s policy of "splendid isolation", choosing to stay above continental European politics.
If not Britain then, how about Russia and, conceivably, beaten foe Austria-Hungary? This latter treaty promised aid to each other in the event of an attack by Russia, or if Russia aided another power at war with either Germany or Austria-Hungary.
Should either nation be attacked by another power, e.
France, they were to remain - at the very least - benevolently neutral.World War I: Causes and Effects I. Causes of World War I.
II. Modern War, Technology and the Human Cost. III. Meanings of World War I. Causes of World War I 1. Growth of German power in Central Europe challenged Great Powers (France, Great Britain, Events Leading to World War I.
What was the most significant cause of World War One? (WW1) I think the most significant cause of World War one was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
The other causes of the. Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One June 28 in Sarajevo. We'll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened. Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the s, and especially the political takeover in of Germany by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy.
The immediate cause was Germany invading Poland on September 1, , and Britain and France declaring war on Germany on September 3, The direct cause of WWI was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo on 28 June However historians feel that a number of factors contributed to the rivalry between the Great powers that allowed war on such a wide-scale to break out.
Nov 23, · The results of World War I led to World War II. The Treaty of Versailles, ending the First World War, was intended as vengeance and to cause suffering to the Germans. Their colonies were surrendered, military shortened, and were made to pay massive reparations for the war. For a .