Life[ edit ] Eco was born in the city of Alessandriain Piedmont in northern Italy, and here he attended high school. His father, Giulio, one of thirteen children, was an accountant before the government called him to serve in three wars.
Umberto's father urged him to become a lawyer, but he entered the University of Turin to take up medieval philosophy and literature, writing his thesis on Thomas Aquinas and earning a Laurea degree in philosophy in During his university studies, Eco stopped believing in God and left the Catholic Church.
A group of avant-garde artists, painters, musicians and writers, whom he had befriended at RAI Gruppo 63became an important and influential component in Eco's writing career. This was especially true after the publication of his first book inIl problema estetico in San Tommaso, which was an extension of his Laurea thesis.
This also marked the beginning of his lecturing career at his alma mater. In September he married Renate Ramge, a German art teacher with whom he had a son and a daughter.
He divided his time between an apartment in Milan and a vacation house near Urbino.
He had a 30, volume library in the former and a 20, volume library in the latter. In — Eco was the Norton professor at Harvard University. Six books that were authored, co-authored, or co-edited by Eco were published by Indiana University Press.
Inthe University of Belgrade in Serbia awarded him an honorary doctorate. By Jean-Max Albert Rt, Eco died at his Milanese home of pancreatic cancer from which he had been suffering for two years, on the night of 19 February After 18 months' military service in the Italian Armyhe left RAI in to become the senior non-fiction editor of the Bompiani publishing house in Milan, a position he occupied until Literary criticism[ edit ] Eco began seriously developing his ideas on the "open" text and on semiotics, writing many essays on these subjects, and in he published Opera aperta translated into English as "The Open Work".
In it, Eco argued that literary texts are fields of meaning, rather than strings of meaning; and that they are understood as open, internally dynamic and psychologically engaged fields. Literature which limits one's potential understanding to a single, unequivocal line, the closed text, remains the least rewarding, while texts that are the most active between mind, society and life open texts are the liveliest and best—although valuation terminology was not his primary focus.
Eco came to these positions through study of language and from semiotics, rather than from psychology or historical analysis as did theorists such as Wolfgang Iseron the one hand, and Hans Robert Jausson the other.
Studies on media culture[ edit ] Eco's short essay "Fenomenologia di Mike Bongiorno" "Phenomenology of Mike Bongiorno ", on the most popular quiz show host in Italy received much notoriety among the general public and has drawn endless questions by journalists at every public appearance by Eco; the essay was later included in the collection Diario minimo His book Apocalittici e integrati analyzes the phenomenon of mass communication from a sociological perspective.
In he gave the influential  lecture "Towards a Semiological Guerrilla Warfare", which coined the influential term " semiological guerrilla ", and influenced the theorization of guerrilla tactics against mainstream mass media culturesuch as guerrilla television and culture jamming.
It's the invasion of the idiots. The main books in which he elaborates his theory are La struttura assente ; literally: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation Quaderni di studi semiotici known as VS among Italian academicsa semiotic journal.
VS is used by scholars whose work is related to signs and signification. The journal's foundation and activities have contributed to semiotics as an academic field in its own right, both in Italy and in the rest of Europe. Most of the well-known European semioticians, including Eco, A. Eco developed this transcultural international network based on the idea of Alain le Pichon in West Africa.
The Bologna program resulted in the first conference in Guangzhou, Chinain entitled "Frontiers of Knowledge". The first event was soon followed by an Itinerant Euro-Chinese seminar on "Misunderstandings in the Quest for the Universal" along the silk trade route from Guangzhou to Beijing.
The latter culminated in a book entitled The Unicorn and the Dragon,  which discussed the question of the creation of knowledge in China and in Europe.
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Mar 21, · Roger Angell's martini recipe was published in The New Yorker. But can it stand up to a 1½-foot-long lemon twist? Photo by Neilson Barnard/Getty Images . is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
Widely known as an original and graceful writer, Roger Angell has developed a devoted following through his essays in the New Yorker. Now, in Let Me Finish, a deeply personal, fresh form of autobiography, he takes an unsentimental look at his early days as a boy growing up in Prohibition-era New /5.