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Major researchers[ edit ] Some commentators have identified three waves of historical comparative research. For PhD dissertations this can be an approach used. One example is comparing communities and minorities and social groups. Mordechai Zaken compared two non-Muslim minorities in Kurdistan, the Jews and the Assyrian Christians in their relationships with their Muslim rulers and tribal chieftains during the 19th and 20th centuries.
His comparative study gave a much clearer picture on the status of the minorities and their relationships with the ruling elites in and around Kurdistan.
His PhD dissertation and the online book upon which it was based have been widely spread and translated into the local languages in Kurdistan and the surrounding. These are archival data, secondary sources, running records, and recollections. The archival data, or primary sources, are typically the resources that researchers rely most heavily on.
Archival data includes official documents and other items that would be found in archives, museums, etc. Secondary sources are the works of other historians who have written history.
Running records are ongoing series of statistical or other sorts of data, such as census data, ship's registries, property deeds, etc. Finally recollections include sources such as autobiographies, memoirs or diaries.
Historical data is a difficult set of data to work with due to multiple factors. This data set can be very biased, such as diaries, memoirs, letters, which are all influenced not only by the person writing them, that person's world view but can also, logically, be linked to that individual's socioeconomic status.
Historical data regardless or whether it may or may not be biased diaries vs. Time can destroy fragile paper, fade ink until it is illegible, wars, environmental disasters can all destroy data and special interest groups can destroy mass amounts of data to serve a specific purpose at the time they lived, etc.
Hence, data is naturally incomplete and can lead social scientists to many barriers in their research. Often historical comparative research is a broad and wide reaching topic such as how democracy evolved in three specific regions.
Tracking how democracy developed is a daunting task for one country or region let alone three. Here the scale of the social system, which is attempting to be studied, is overwhelming but also the complexity is extreme. Within each case there are multiple different social systems that can affect the development of a society and its political system.
The factors must be separated and analyzed so that causality can be attained. It is causality that brings us to yet another key issue in methods for historical comparative research, the nature of the questions which are asked is attempting to propose causal relationships between a set of variables.
Determining causality alone is a difficult task; coupled with the incomplete nature of historical data and the complexity and scale of the social systems being used to examine causality the task becomes even more challenging.
Identifying features[ edit ] The three identifying issues of historical comparative research are causal relationships, processes over time, and comparisons.
Schutt discusses the five criteria, which must be met in order to have a causal relationship. Of the five the first three are the most important: Association simply means that between two variables; the change in one variable is related to the change in another variable.
Time order refers to the fact that the cause the independent variable must be shown to have occurred first and the effect the dependent variable to have occurred second.
Nonspuriousness says that the association between two variables is not because of a third variable. The deterministic causal approach requires that in every study, the independent and dependent variable have an association, and within that study every case nation, region the independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable.
Mill's Methods discusses; direct method of agreement, method of difference, joint method of agreement and difference, method of residues and method of concomitant variations. Mill's methods are typically the most useful when the causal relationship is already suspected and can therefore be a tool for eliminating other explanations.
Difficulties[ edit ] There are several difficulties that historical comparative research faces. James Mahoney, one of the current leading figures in historical comparative research, identifies several of these in his book "Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences.
Both Kiser and Hechter employ models within Rational Choice Theory for their general causal principles.
Historical researchers that oppose them Skocpol, Summers, others argue that Kiser and Hechter do not suggest many other plausible general theories, and thus it seems as though their advocacy for general theories is actually advocacy for their preferred general theory.
They also raise other criticisms of using rational choice theory in historical comparative research.International Refereed Research Journal vetconnexx.com Vol–III, Issue3(3), July  COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MUTUAL FUND SCHEMES OF INDIAN COMPANIES Prof.
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec Causal-comparative research design can be defined as a research that permits researchers to study naturally occurring, cause and effect relationship through comparison of data from participant groups who exhibit the variables of interest.
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