Mill was raised in the tradition of Philosophical Radicalism, made famous by Jeremy Bentham —John Austin —and his father James Mill —which applied utilitarian principles in a self-conscious and systematic way to issues of institutional design and social reform.
In this essay, I will refer mostly to the virtues ren, yi, and li in comparison to Western virtue ethics. In this essay, I intend to argue that Confucian virtue ethics offer a relevant perspective in moral judgment.
I will 1 examine and compare similarities to thought in Western philosophy to establish the relevance of Confucian virtue ethics, and 2 propose a dialectic feature of moral psychology by establishing a tripartite relationship between yi, li, and ren in influencing moral judgments.
Confucius explicates a strong investment in normative virtue ethics, or discussions of how someone should act based on some assessment of his character. This is especially so in the form of his discussions of possessing the above-mentioned virtues of ren, yi, li, zhi, and xin.
In this section, I will explore the modern philosophical literature of Confucian virtues in the form of ren, yi, and li and their relevance to other Western thinkers. Here, there is an emphasis on leadership.
Confucius advocates for virtue ethics to inform policy decision-making for rulers. True to form, authors such as Luo Shirong note the value of Confucian virtues in leadership — specifically the employment of ren benevolence in the analysis of the Analects.
He notes how only an individual who whole-heartedly and persistently practices ren can be credited with possession of ren effectively. It is only then that this individual may be worthy of leadership.
Regarding ren, it seems trivially true that the benevolent ruler, whom — for the sake of terminology — loves his country, seeks for nothing but its betterment.
It remains instinctively true that, by process of reverse-engineering this comparison, most people seek to live moral lives — and Confucius adds that the importance of seeking ren is to fulfil that endeavour.
Given the prominence of love romantic, familial, platonic, etc. As defined above, li refers to ritual propriety.
In extenuation, however, li can also be presented as an understanding of complex social norms and the behaviour appropriate for it.
True to form in social science literature, enculturation has been widely cited as a means of integration of insertion of values into an individual.
Given the direct relevance of li and the sociology of enculturation, which in itself is a concept that is prevalent and relevant in the 21st century, it seems that sociological theory lends credibility to the concept of li, especially in its interpretation as cultural norms.
Regarding ethical theory, cultural relativism comes to mind. Cultural relativism is the view that universal moral truths do not exist, and morality is up to the various cultural codes of ethics.
This lends immediate credibility to the above interpretation of li, arguing for moral value in codes of conduct that are specific to each individual culture. Referring to li and cultural relativism, it seems here that Confucius suggests that an individual should be well-versed in the ethical codes of conduct within his host community.
However, it is notable that only li lines up with cultural relativism which purports the lack of universal moral truths; the other virtues he lists seem to advocate some form of universal moral truth.
Deviating from traditional cultural relativism, its ideas of culture-sensitive morality nonetheless fits the function of li in Confucian virtue ethics. Arguably, this is why Confucius cites more than just li in his number of virtues — that a moral person should consider li, together with further deliberation of other moral truths such as ren.
Arguably the most prominent form of virtue in Confucian ethics, yi, refers to an individualised sense of morality; or righteousness. With regard to Aristotlean virtue ethics, one finds a stark similarity between yi and phronesis, or practical wisdom.
The concept of righteousness in the form of yi within a virtuous agent, once examined up-close, seems to instinctively reside in the definition of practical wisdom. It informs daily interactions with one another, informing the moral agent of his code of conduct.
In this case, yi can even be a form of phronesis. The virtue of righteousness, in this sense, serves to inform deliberation when the moral agent is faced with a situation in which his moral judgment is required. Having established Confucian virtue ethics for its relevance in the current context, the following section aims to propose a manner through which Confucian virtues can be used to understand moral cognition.Most of the essays originally appeared in The.
This. · Virtue Ethics is a moral philosophy commonly attributed to Plato and Aristotle. · The moral philosophy of St. Gilbert Harman, Explaining Value and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy:Explaining Value and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy.
The Philosophy of Moral Development Vol. 1: Essays in Moral Development by Lawrence Kohlberg and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at vetconnexx.com - The Philosophy of Moral Development: Moral Stages and the Idea of Justice Essays on Moral Development, Volume 1 by Lawrence Kohlberg - AbeBooks.
The formation of a system of underlying assumptions about standards and principles that govern moral decisions. Moral development involves the formation of a system of values on which to base decisions concerning "right" and "wrong, " or "good" and "bad."fi Values are underlying assumptions about standards that govern moral decisions.
While fellow psychologist, Jean Piaget developed a two stage process of moral development, Kohlberg elaborated on the theory to incorporate the methods of thinking used in moral development over an individual's entire life span (Cherry).
- The Philosophy of Moral Development: Moral Stages and the Idea of Justice Essays on Moral Development, Volume 1 by Lawrence Kohlberg.
Ethical/Moral Philosophy Academic Essay This section of the writing-intensive paper is also to be 3 to 5 pages in length and double-spaced, using point, Times New Roman font. It is designed to be a self-reflection exercise that addresses the following questions/ considerations.