A positive and supportive attachment to a parent will help to protect the child from developing emotional and behavioral problems as she grows older.
It has been found that early dispositional characteristics and socio-emotional functioning have an extensive and prolonged impact on social, school and psychological adjustment.
In Western societies, for example, positive emotionality and sociability are predictive of peer acceptance, school achievement and psychological well-being. In contrast, defiance and aggression are associated with later peer rejection, school problems, and other adjustment problems.
Finally, social anxiety and behavioral inhibition in infancy and early childhood may contribute to difficulties in peer relationships and adjustment problems of an internalizing nature such as loneliness and depression.
Moreover, cultural norms and values may provide guidance for the interpretation and evaluation of social behaviors and thus impart meanings to the behaviours. Problems Despite the importance of culture for human development, research on socio-emotional functioning has been conducted mostly with Western, particularly North American, children.
Consequently, little is known about how children behave and perform in social situations in other societies. Our understanding of social behaviours, relationships and psychological adjustment is limited to Euro-American cultures. A number of studies have been conducted in diverse societies using both qualitative e.
A major challenge in the cross-cultural study of socio-emotional functioning is the understanding of its cultural meaning. Two strategies to achieve this understanding are 1 to examine how socio-emotional functioning is associated with social interactions and relationships, and 2 to examine how socio-emotional functioning develops in the culture e.
Key Research Questions Are there cross-cultural differences in the exhibition of specific aspects of socio-emotional functioning? Are there cross-cultural differences in the antecedents, concomitants and consequences of specific aspects of socio-emotional functioning?
Are the developmental processes and patterns of socio-emotional functioning similar or different across cultures?
What cultural beliefs and values are associated with socio-emotional functioning and development? What are the processes in which cultural beliefs and values affect socio-emotional functioning and development?
Recent Research Results Children across cultures may display similar as well as different socio-emotional characteristics in early childhood. Whereas similarity emerges in pervasive aspects, the distinct patterns of socio-emotional functioning have been revealed in cross-cultural research on children in different societies.
For example, Chinese and Korean toddlers exhibited higher fearful, vigilant and anxious reactions than Australian, Canadian and Italian toddlers in novel stressful situations.
Compared with Euro-American parents, Chinese and Korean parents were also more likely to emphasize behavioral control in childrearing. Socio-emotional characteristics in the early years may have implications for the development of social behaviors.
Edwards13 found that children in relatively open communities e. Relatively low social interaction was also found in Chinese and Indonesian children, compared with their North American counterparts.
Western children tend to engage in more socio-dramatic behaviors than children in many other, particularly group-oriented, cultures. Farver, Kim and Lee16 found that Korean American preschool children displayed less social and pretend play than Anglo-American children. Moreover, when Korean children engaged in pretend play, it contained more everyday and family role activities and less fantastic themes e.
Gosso Lima, Morais and Otta17 found that rural children in Brazil displayed less pretend or socio-dramatic behaviors than urban children. Also, the prevalent characters in the pretend play of seashore children were domestic animals dogs and horseswhich, according to Gosso et al.
Children in societies where extended families live together in traditional styles tend to display more prosocial-cooperative behavior than children in economically complex societies with class structures and occupational division of labour. Cultures that value competitiveness and the pursuit of personal goals seem to allow for more coercive and aggressive behavior than cultures that emphasize group harmony.
Researchers have reported that North American children tended to exhibit higher levels of aggressive and externalizing behavior than their counterparts in some Asian countries such as China, Korea, Japan and Thailand, in Australia and in some European nations such as Sweden and the Netherlands.
First, there are few systematic cross-cultural longitudinal research programs. As a result, little is known about the developmental processes of socio-emotional functioning in a cultural context.
Second, the existing research has relied mostly on cross-cultural comparisons. Third, researchers have paid little attention to the processes in which cultural norms and values are involved in socio-emotional development.
Chen, Chung and Hsiao22 have recently proposed a contextual-developmental perspective that emphasizes the role of the social evaluation and response processes in mediating the links between culture and socio-emotional development.
According to this perspective, during social interactions, peers evaluate and respond to individual characteristics in manners that are consistent with cultural belief systems in the society and express corresponding attitudes e.
The impact of cultural context on socio-emotional development is likely to occur through parental socialization practices and, in the later years, through peer interactions.The child-parent relationship has a major influence on most aspects of child development. When optimal, parenting skills and behaviours have a positive impact on children’s self-esteem, school achievement, cognitive development and behaviour.
Factors affecting parent involvement in school. ERN Admin. Language, parent cliques, parents’ education, cultural influences, How parents answer that question affects child’s performance. Research on parenting. Peers, parents and teachers influence amotivation in teenage students. Cultural & Parental Affects on Child Development How parent styles and culture can affect child development is an interesting question.
Really the question isn't how it can affect development but how will it affect child development. But over time, a transition from the parental to the child orientation has been made (Bell, ).
The study of human development has been guided through most of its history by a simple parent effects model in which it is assumed that influences in the family run by one way: from parent to child. It has long been recognized that cultural variables influence how children present themselves, understand the world, and interpret experiences.
Culture also affects the experiences through which children 's earliest literacy and number knowledge are acquired. Some of these experiences may be. Parental Influence on the Emotional Development of Children.
by Bethel Moges and Kristi Weber. When most people think of parenting, they picture changing diapers, messy feeding times, and chasing a screaming child through a crowded grocery store.