Evaluation Research Design 19A Hamilton This paper provides a theoretical grounding in programme evaluation, with an emphasis on the evaluation of programmes in the not-for-profit sector. Emphasis is placed on qualitative methods, collaborative approaches and evaluation as a strategy of incremental social change. Evaluation Research Analysis 19C Block This paper provides an introduction to evaluation praxis with a major focus on completing a small scale evaluation of a social service or health programme.
In philosophy[ edit ] An essence characterizes a substance or a formin the sense of the forms and ideas in Platonic idealism. It is permanent, unalterable, and eternal, is and present in every possible world. Classical humanism has an essentialist conception of the human, Biological psychology essays its endorsement of the notion of an eternal and unchangeable human nature.
This has been criticized by KierkegaardMarxHeideggerSartreand many other existential and materialist thinkers. In Plato 's philosophy in particular, the Timaeus and the Philebusthings were said to come into being by the action of a demiurge who works to form chaos into ordered entities.
Many definitions of essence hark back to the ancient Greek hylomorphic understanding of the formation of the things. According to that account, the structure and real existence of any thing can be understood by analogy to an artefact produced by a craftsperson.
The craftsperson requires hyle timber or wood and a model, plan or idea in her own mind, according to which the wood is worked to give it the indicated contour or form morphe.
Aristotle was Biological psychology essays first to use the terms hyle and morphe. According to his explanationall entities have two aspects: It is the particular form imposed that gives some matter its identity—its quiddity or "whatness" i.
Plato was one of the first essentialists, postulating the concept of ideal forms—an abstract entity of which individual objects are mere facsimiles. To give an example: Plato proposed that these ideas are eternal and vastly superior to their manifestations, and that we understand these manifestations in the material world by comparing and relating them to their respective ideal form.
Plato's forms are regarded as patriarchs to essentialist dogma simply because they are a case of what is intrinsic and a-contextual of objects—the abstract properties that makes them what they are.
For more on forms, read Plato's parable of the cave. Karl Popper splits the ambiguous term realism into essentialism and realism. He uses essentialism whenever he means the opposite of nominalismand realism only as opposed to idealism. Popper himself is a realist as opposed to an idealist, but a methodological nominalist as opposed to an essentialist.
For example, statements like "a puppy is a young dog" should be read from right to left, as an answer to "What shall we call a young dog"; never from left to right as an answer to "What is a puppy?
Unlike existentialismwhich posits "being" as the fundamental reality, the essentialist ontology must be approached from a metaphysical perspective. Empirical knowledge is developed from experience of a relational universe whose components and attributes are defined and measured in terms of intellectually constructed laws.
Thus, for the scientist, reality is explored as an evolutionary system of diverse entities, the order of which is determined by the principle of causality. Plato believed that the universe was perfect and that its observed imperfections came from man's limited perception of it.
For Plato, there were two realities: In his critique of Aristotle's philosophy, Bertrand Russell said that his concept of essence transferred to metaphysics what was only a verbal convenience and that it confused the properties of language with the properties of the world.
In fact, a thing's "essence" consisted in those defining properties without which we could not use the name for it.
Despite the metaphysical basis for the term, academics in science, aestheticsheuristicspsychologyand gender-based sociological studies have advanced their causes under the banner of essentialism.
Among contemporary essentialists, what all existing things have in common is the power to exist, which defines their "uncreated" Essence.
Folland in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society stated, "It is a truth universally acknowledged that almost all mathematicians are Platonists, at least when they are actually doing mathematics …" This refers to their implicit embrace of essentialism, which he finds revealed in mathematicians peculiar use of language.
Whereas physicists define Lie algebra as a rule they can apply to facts, mathematicians define it as an essence of a structure, independent of any circumstance. He believes the answer to this and many other questions is that people cannot help but think of objects as containing a sort of "essence" that can be influenced.
|Pattern recognition (psychology) - Wikipedia||Thompson, Grace and Cohen state the most important needs for children are connection, recognition, and power.|
Influential in this area is Susan Gelmanwho has outlined many domains in which children and adults construe classes of entities, particularly biological entities, in essentialist terms—i. In developmental psychology[ edit ] Essentialism has emerged as an important concept in psychology, particularly developmental psychology.
Children were able to identify the cause of behaviour in living and non-living objects. Children understood that underlying essences predicted observable behaviours.
Participants could correctly describe living objects' behaviour as self-perpetuated and non-living objects as a result of an adult influencing the object's actions. This is a biological way of representing essential features in cognitions.
Understanding the underlying causal mechanism for behaviour suggests essentialist thinking  Rangel and Keller, Younger children were unable to identify causal mechanisms of behaviour whereas older children were able to.
This suggests that essentialism is rooted in cognitive development. There are four key criteria which constitute essentialist thinking.Biological Psychology Essay comprehension of psychology in the field neuroscience that underlies ones emotions, ideology, and actions (Brittanica).
Based upon the conduction of research, the relationship between the brain and ones behavior extends to the physiological process in one’s intellect.
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Biological Psychology Biological Psychology Paper Biological psychology is a vital part of psychology; without it psychology would not be considered a science, rather it may still be considered an art.
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