Experts agree that nature i. Schools can magnify or diminish gender differences by providing environments that promote within-gender similarity and between-gender differences, or the inverse within-gender variability and between group similarity. Teachers and peers directly influence gender differentiation by providing boys and girls with different learning opportunities and feedback.
Preface Recently, I discovered a list of unfinished research projects, which I had made fifteen years ago at the end of graduate school. These pioneers laid the intellectual foundations for this project, and were often kind enough to teach me and encourage my gender interests. Ann Tickner, and others.
And, fortunately, I did get tenure. A second debt I owe to the John D. MacArthur Foundation, which funded a research leave based on my vague idea of writing an interdisciplinary book about war. I grew up on the Stanford campus, with two molecular biologists for parents. Only in retrospect do I appreciate what an extraordinary privilege it was to grow up inside Stanford when it was still a small town and, for me, an interdisciplinary incubator.
Science and scholarship are never entirely unbiased, since knowledge-production occurs within social and political contexts. Scientists occupy positions in social hierarchies. Arguments serve purposes and reflect political agendas.
Personally, I write from a position of privilege and security, as a white, male, North American, tenured social scientist. My political agenda today is anti-war and pro-feminist, tempered over several decades by an appreciation of the enormous complexity and difficulty of these important changes in human society.
All these perspectives, no doubt, affect the character of my book, but I would single out especially that of being a man. Men should pay more attention to gender. We learn about ourselves by doing so. I have, at least. This book summarizes a large and complex body of evidence drawn from different research communities in a variety of academic disciplines.
The result is a longer book, but a richer one. The research literatures covered here are growing exponentially. My review, with some exceptions, ends in earlyalthough new and interesting works continue to appear notably Kurtz ed.
Many others will follow. Exchanging ideas with scholars from other disciplines has been a special pleasure of this project. Finally, thanks to Andra, Solomon, and Ruth for companionship and humor.
About the footnotes The footnotes, grouped by paragraph of text, provide work and page citations for quotes and specific claims, indicated by an identifier word before the page number.
A subject word followed by a colon applies to subsequent citations until the next colon. A citation without identifier or subject word refers to a discussion relevant to the paragraph but not to any particular claim or quote in it.
Some of the footnotes encapsulate running conversations, which the interested reader can reconstruct from the sequence of page citations given. About the website Discussions and updates regarding the topics raised in this book may be found at its site on the World Wide Web, www.
Scholarly resources include a searchable list of the References. Join an interdisciplinary conversation, check for errata sighor read the first chapter.Social incentives for gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask ☆.
Website for Joshua S. Goldstein's book, War and Gender (Cambridge University Press, ). TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods.
Related . A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are . What do we know about differences in how girls and boys learn? There are significant differences in the ways girls and boys learn, differences which are more substantial than age differences in many ways.
TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods. Related topics may include sensation.