History[ edit ] While a literature of reform had already appeared by the midth century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around Changes in journalism prior to [ edit ] Nellie Bly The muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America 6th ed.
History[ edit ] While a literature of reform had already appeared by the midth century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around Louis" in McClure's October issue was called the first muckraking article.
Changes in journalism prior to [ edit ] Nellie Bly The muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America 6th ed.
One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M.
Tweed in that was uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St.
Louis," Lincoln Steffens exposed the grafta system of political corruption, that was ingrained in St. While some muckrakers had already worked for reform newspapers of the personal journalism variety, such as Steffens who was a reporter for the New York Evening Post under Edwin Lawrence Godkin other muckrakers had worked for yellow journals before moving on to magazines aroundsuch as Charles Edward Russell who was a journalist and editor of Joseph Pulitzer 's New York World.
Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, and thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed An essay on the power of muckraking the average man could get indignant about, that was fine, but it was not the intent to correct social wrongs as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers.
Julius Chambers of the New York Tribunecould be considered to be the original muckraker.
Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum inhaving himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper's city editor.
His intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates. When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and, eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws.
From this time onward, Chambers was frequently invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation, care and treatment. Wells — — an author of a series of articles concerning Jim Crow laws and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad inand co-owned the newspaper The Free Speech in Memphis in which she began an anti-lynching campaign.
Flower - author of articles in The Arena from through advocating for prison reform and prohibition of alcohol. The muckrakers appeared at a moment when journalism was undergoing changes in style and practice.
Muckraking publishers like Samuel S. McClurealso emphasized factual reporting,  but he also wanted what historian Michael Schudson had identified as one of the preferred qualities of journalism at the time, namely, the mixture of "reliability and sparkle" to interest a mass audience.
While the muckrakers continued the investigative exposures and sensational traditions of yellow journalism, they wrote to change society. Their work reached a mass audience as circulation figures of the magazines rose on account of visibility and public interest.
Magazines were the leading outlets for muckraking journalism. McClure led the magazine industry by cutting the price of an issue to 15 cents, attracting advertisers, giving audiences illustrations and well-written content and then raising ad rates after increased sales, with Munsey's and Cosmopolitan following suit.
Tarbell or the seasoned journalist and editor Lincoln Steffens. The magazine's pool of writers were associated with the muckraker movement, such as Ray Stannard Baker, Burton J.
Welliverand their names adorned the front covers. GlavisWill IrwinJ. HamptonJohn L. In addition, Theodore Roosevelt wrote for Scribner's Magazine after leaving office. Origin of the term, Theodore Roosevelt[ edit ] Pilgrim's Progressa first edition After President Theodore Roosevelt took office inhe began to manage the press corps.
To do so, he elevated his press secretary to cabinet status and initiated press conferences. The muckraking journalists who emerged aroundlike Lincoln Steffens, were not as easy for Roosevelt to manage as the objective journalists, and the President gave Steffens access to the White House and interviews to steer stories his way.
When journalists went after different topics, he complained about their wallowing in the mud. There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them.
There should be relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil man whether politician or business man, every evil practice, whether in politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful.
They felt betrayed that Roosevelt would coin them with such a term after they had helped him with his election. Muckraker David Graham Philips believed that the tag of muckraker brought about the end of the movement as it was easier to group and attack the journalists.
A muckraker's reporting may span businesses and government. Early 20th century muckraking[ edit ] Early Writers of the Muckraking Tradition.Essay on The Progressive Movement Words | 4 Pages.
The Progressive Movement (ca. ss) Even more energetic a sphere of historical controversy than that over the Populists is the historians' argument over the Progressive movement.
Muckraking magazines—notably McClure's of the publisher S. S. McClure—took on corporate monopolies and political machines while trying to the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, and thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, that was.
Essay about The Power of Language In The Jungle by Upton Sinclair - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair exemplifies a muckraking style in its often gory depictions of life in a meat packing factory, Sinclair writes of how the meat packing industry exploits its workers, many of whom are uneducated and poor in the same way a capitalist government.
Some of these muckraking periodicals included The Arena, Everybody's, The Independent, and McClure's. Lincoln Steffens, managing editor of McClure's (and later associate editor of American Magazine and Everybody's), was an important leader of the muckraking movement.
During the muckraking era ( – ), publishers counted on a monthly circulation of more than three million. Bold print, startling titles, eye-catching covers, factual detail and emotion were made use of and contributed much to the success of the muckrakers.
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